Backflow/Cross Connection Rules

MONROEVILLE MUNICIPAL AUTHORITY RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF BACKFLOW AND CROSS-CONNECTIONS
MARCH 1992

Section 1 - General Policy

1.1 Purpose.
The purpose of these Rules and Regulations is:

a. To protect the public water supply system from contamination of pollution by isolating within the consumer's water system contaminants or pollutants which could backflow through the service connection into the public water supply system.

b. To promote the elimination or control of existing cross-connections, actual or potential, between the public or consumer's potable water system and nonpotable water systems, plumbing fixtures, and sources or systems containing process fluids.

c. To provide for the maintenance of a continuing program of cross-connection control which will systematically and effectively prevent the contamination or pollution of the public and consumer's potable water system.

1.2 Application.
These Rules and Regulation shall apply to all, premises and connections served by the public water supply system of the Monroeville Municipal Authority.

1.3 Policy.
The Public Water Supplier and the consumer have joint responsibility for the protection of the public water supply system from contamination due to backflow of contaminants through the water service connection. It is the policy of the public water supplier that all consumers shall be required to install and maintain an approved backflow prevention device.

Section 2 - Definitions

2.1 Air Gap Separation - Means the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying potable water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle. The differential distance shall be at least double the diameter (2 x D) of the supply pipe measured vertically above the top of the rim of the vessel. In no case, shall the air gap be less than one (1) inch.

2.2 Approved - Means that a backflow prevention device or method has been accepted by the Public Water Supplier as suitable for the proposed use.

2.3 Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker - The term "atmospheric vacuum breaker" (also known as the nonpressure type vacuum breaker) shall mean a device containing a shut-off valve followed by a valve body containing a float-check, a check seat, and an air inlet port. When the shut-off valve is open, the flow of water causes the float to close the air inlet port. When the shut-off valve is closed, the float: falls and forms a check valve against: back siphonage and at the same time opens the air inlet: port.

2.4 Auxiliary Water System - Means any water source or system on the premises of or available to the customer except connections to other approved community water supply systems.

2.5 Backflow - Means a flow condition induced by a differential in pressure that causes the flow of water or mixtures of water and other liquids, gases, or other substances into the distribution pipes of a potable water supply system from a source other than its intended source.

2.6 Backflow Preventer - A device or other means which will prevent the backflow of water or liquids of questionable quality into the public water supply system.

2.7 Backsiphonage - Means the backflow of water or mixture of water and other liquids, gases, or other substances from a plumbing fixture or other customer source into a public water supply system main due to a temporary negative or subatmospheric pressure within the public water supply system.

2.8 Consumer - Means the owner or person in control of any premises supplied by or in any manner connected to a public water supply system. Customer and consumer are synonymous.

2.9 Consumer's Water System - Means any water system, located on the consumer's premises, supplied by or in any manner connected to a public water supply system. A household plumbing system is considered to be a consumer's water system.

2.10 Containment - Means cross-connection control which isolates the customer's entire facility from the public water supply system so as to provide the protection necessary to prevent contamination of the public water supply in the event of backflow from the customer's facility.

2.11 Contamination - Means the degradation of the quality of the drinking water by wastewaters, processed fluids, or any water of a quality less than accepted drinking water quality to a degree which would create an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease.

2.12 Cross-Connection - An arrangement allowing either a direct or indirect connection through which backflow, including backsiphonage, can occur between the drinking water in a public water system and a system containing a source or potential source of contamination.

2.13 Degree of Hazard - Means an evaluation of the potential risk to health and the adverse effect upon the public water supply system.

2.14 Double Check Valve Assembly - Means an assembly composed of two single, independently acting, check valves including tightly closing shut-off valves located at each check valve.

2.15 Health Hazard - Means any condition, device, or practice in a water system or its operation that creates, or may create, a danger to the health and well being of its users. The word "severe" as used to qualify "health hazard" means a hazard to the health of the user that could reasonably be expected to result in the significant morbidity or death.

2.16 Interchangeable Connection - Means an arrangement or device that will allow alternate but not simultaneous use of two sources of water.

2.17 Nonpotable Water - Means water not safe for drinking, personal, or culinary use.

2.18 Person - Any individual, partnership, association, company, corporation, municipality, municipal authority, political subdivision or any agency of federal or state government. The term includes the officers, employees, and agents of any partnership, association, company, corporation, municipality, municipal authority, political subdivision, or any agency of federal or state government.

2.19 Pollution - Means the presence in water of any foreign substance that tends to degrade its quality so as to constitute a hazard or impair the usefulness or quality of the water to a degree which does not create an actual hazard to the public health but which does adversely and unreasonably affect such waters for domestic use.

2.20 Potable Water - Means water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary, and domestic purposes and meets the requirements of the Department of Environmental Resources.

2.21 Process Fluids - Means any fluid or solution which may be chemically, biologically, or otherwise contaminated or polluted in a form or concentration such as would constitute a health, pollutional, or system hazard if introduced into the public or a consumer's water system. This includes, but is not limited to:

a. Polluted or contaminated waters.
b. Process waters.
c. Used waters originating from the public water system which may have deteriorated in sanitary quality.
d. Cooling waters.
e. Contaminated natural waters taken from wells lakes, streams, or irrigation systems.
f. Chemicals in solution or suspension.
g. Oils, gases, acids, alkalis, and other liquid and gaseous fluids used in industrial or other processes, or for fire fighting purposes.
h. Heating system waters from boilers or heat pumps.

2.22 Public Water Supplier - A person who owns or operates a public water system. For the purpose of these Rules and Regulations, Public Water Supplier shall mean The Monroeville Municipal Authority.

2.23 Public Water Supply System - A system which provides water to the public for human consumption which has at least 15 service connections or regularly serves an average of at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days out of the year. The term is either a community or non-community water system and includes any collection, treatment, storage, and distribution facilities under control of the operator of the system and used in connection with the system. The term includes collection or pretreatment storage facilities not under such control which are used in connection with the system. The term also includes a system which provides water for bottling or bulk hauling for human consumption.

2.24 Reduced Pressure Zone (RPZ) Device - Means a minimum of two independently acting check valves, together with an automatically operated pressure differential relief valve located between the two check valves. During normal flow and at the cessation of normal flow, the pressure between these two checks shall be less than the supply pressure. In case of leakage of either check valve, the differential relief valve by discharging to the atmosphere shall operate to maintain the pressure between the checks at less than the supply pressure. The unit must include tightly closing shut-off valves located at each end of the device, and each device shall be fitted with properly located test cocks.

2.25 Service Connection - Means the terminal end of a service line from the public water supply system. If a meter is installed at the end of the service, then the service connection means the downstream end of the meter.

2.26 System Hazard - Means a condition posing an actual or potential threat of damage to the physical properties of the public water system or the consumer's potable water system.

Section 3 -Water System

3.1 The water system shall be considered as made up of two parts: (1) the public water supply system and (2) the consumer's water system.

3.2 The public water supply system shall consist of the source facilities and the distribution system and shall include all those facilities of the public water supply system under the control of the Public Water Supplier up to the point where the consumer's water system begins.

3.3 The source shall include all components of the facilities utilized in the production, treatment, storage, and delivery of water to the public distribution system.

3.4 The public distribution system shall include the network of conduits used for delivery of water from the source to the consumer's water system.

3.5 The consumer's water system shall include all facilities beyond the service connection which are utilized in conveying water from the public distribution system to points of use.

Section 4 - Cross-Connections Prohibited

4.1 No water service connection shall be installed or maintained to any premises where actual or potential cross-connections to the public water supply system or consumer's water system may exist unless such actual or potential cross-connections are " abated or controlled to the satisfaction of the Public Water Supplier.

4.2 No connection shall be installed or maintained whereby water from an auxiliary water supply may enter a public or consumer's water system unless such auxiliary water supply and the method of connection and use of such supply shall have , been approved by the Public Water Supplier.

Section 5 - Survey and Investigations

5.1 The consumer's premises shall be open at all reasonable times to the Public Water Supplier or his authorized representative for the purposes of conducting surveys and investigations of water use practices within the consumer's premises to determine whether there are actual or potential cross-connections to the consumer's water system through which contaminants or pollutants could backflow into the public potable water system.

5.2 On request by the Public Water Supplier, the consumer shall furnish information on water use practices within his premises.

5.3 It shall be the responsibility of the water consumer to conduct periodic surveys of water use practices on his premises to determine whether there are actual or potential cross-connections to his water system through which contaminants or pollutants could backflow into the public water supply system.

Section 6 - Where Protection is Required

6.1 An approved backflow prevention device shall be installed prior to the first branch line leading off each service line to a consumer's water system where, in the judgment of the Public Water Supplier, an actual or potential hazard to the public water supply system exists.

6.2 An approved backflow prevention device shall be installed on each service line to a consumer's water system.

6.3 An approved backflow prevention device shall be installed on each consumer's water system serving, but not necessarily limited to, the following types of facilities.

a. Hospitals, mortuaries, clinics, nursing homes.
b. Laboratories.
c. Piers, docks, waterfront facilities.
d. Sewage treatment plants, sewage pumping stations, or stormwater pumping stations.
e. Food or beverage processing plants. f. Chemical plants.
g. Metal plating industries.
h. Petroleum processing or storage plants.
i. Radioactive material processing plants.
j. Car wash or truck wash facilities.
k. Others specified by the Public Water Supplier.
l. Fire protection systems.

Section 7-Type of Protection Required

7.1 The type of protection required under Section 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3 of these Rules and Regulations shall depend on the degree of hazard which exists as follows:

a. An approved air gap separation shall be installed where the public water supply system may be contaminated with substances that are dangerous to the public health and could cause a severe health hazard as determined by the Public Water Supplier.

b. An approved air gap separation or an approved reduced pressure zone backflow prevention device shall be installed where the public water supply system may be contaminated with a substance that could cause a system or health hazard.c. An approved air gap separation, or an approved reduced pressure zone backflow prevention device, or an approved double check valve assembly shall be installed where the public water supply system may be polluted with substances that would be objectionable but not dangerous to health.

Section 8 - Backflow Prevention Devices

8.1 Any backflow prevention device required by these Rules and Regulations shall be of a model or construction approved by the Public Water Supplier and shall comply with the following:

a. Air gap separation to be approved shall be at least twice the diameter of the supply pipe, measured vertically above the top rim of the vessel, but in no case less than one inch.

b. A double check valve assembly or a reduced pressure zone backflow prevention device shall be approved by the Public Water Supplier and shall mean a device that has been manufactured in full conformance with standards established by the American Water Works Association entitled: AWWA C506 Standards For Reduced Pressure Principle and Double Check Valve Backflow Prevention Devices,(latest revision) Said AWWA standards are herein adopted by the Public Water Supplier. Final approval, however, of the "Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Preventer" and the "Double Check Valve Assembly" shall be evidenced by a "Certificate of Full Approval" issued by an approved testing laboratory certifying full compliance with the said AWWA standards.

8.2 Existing backflow prevention devices previously approved by the Public Water Supplier at the time of installation and properly maintained shall, except for inspection and maintenance requirements, be excluded from the requirement of Section 8.1 of these Rules and Regulations providing the Public Water Supplier is assured that they will satisfactorily protect the public potable supply system. Whenever the existing device is moved from the present location or requires more than minimum maintenance or when the Public Water Supplier finds that the maintenance of the device constitutes a hazard to health, the device shall be replaced by a backflow prevention device meeting the requirements of these Rules and Regulations.

Section 9 - Installation

9.1 Backflow prevention devices required by these Rules and Regulations shall be Installed at a location and in a manner approved by the Public Water Supplier and shall be installed by a person properly qualified and at the expense of the water consumer.

9.2 Backflow prevention devices installed on the service line to a consumer's water system shall be located on the consumer's side of the water meter, as close to the meter as is reasonably practical, and prior to any other connection.

9.3 Pits or vaults shall be of water-tight construction, be so located and constructed as to prevent flooding, and shall be maintained free from standing water by means of either a sump pump or a suitable drain. Such sump pump or drain shall not connect to a sanitary sewer nor permit flooding of the pit or vault by reverse flow from its point of discharge. An access ladder and adequate natural or artificial lighting shall be provided to permit maintenance inspection and testing of the backflow prevention device.

Section 10 - Inspection and Maintenance

10.1 It shall be the duty of the consumer at any premises on which backflow prevention devices required by these Rules and Regulations are installed to have inspections, tests, and overhauls made in accordance with the following schedule or more often where inspections indicate a need.

a. Air separation shall be inspected at time of installation and at least every twelve months thereafter.b. Double check valve assemblies shall be inspected and tested for tightness at the time of installation and at least every twelve months thereafter. This requirement is waived for single family dwelling units.They shall be dismantled, inspected internally, cleaned, and repaired whenever needed and at least every thirty months.c. Reduced pressure zone backflow prevention devices shall be inspected and tested for tightness at the time of installation and at least every twelve months thereafter.They shall be dismantled, inspected internally, cleaned and repaired whenever needed and at least every five years.

10.2 Inspections, tests, and overhaul of backflow prevention devices shall be made at the expense of the water consumer and shall be performed by the Public Water Supplier or a person certified to inspect, test, and overhaul backflow prevention devices.

10.3 Whenever backflow prevention devices required by these Rules and Regulations are found to be defective, they shall be repaired or replaced at the expense of the consumer without delay.

10.4 The water consumer must maintain a complete record of each backflow prevention device from purchase to retirement. This shall include a comprehensive listing that includes a record of all tests, inspections, and repairs. Records of inspections, tests, repairs, and overhauls shall be submitted to the Public Water Supplier. When completed, all inspection reports shall contain the license number of the certified inspector or plumber.

10.5 Backflow prevention devices shall not be bypassed, made inoperative, removed, or otherwise made ineffective without specific authorization by the water supplier.

Section 11 - Booster Pumps

11.1 Where a booster pump has been installed on the service line to or within any premises, such pump shall be equipped with a low pressure, cut-off device designed to shut-off the booster pump when the pressure in the service line on the suction side of the pump drops to ten pounds per square inch gauge or less for a period of 30 seconds or longer.

11.2 It shall be the duty of the water consumer to maintain the low-pressure cut-of device in proper working order and to certify to the Public Water Supplier at least once a year that the device is operating properly.

Section 12 - Violations

12.1 The Public Water Supplier may deny or discontinue, after reasonable notice to the occupants thereof, the water service to any premises wherein any backflow prevention device required by these Rules and Regulations is not installed, tested, and maintained in a manner acceptable to the Public Water Supplier; or if it is found that: the backflow prevention device has been removed or by-passed; or if an unprotected cross-connection exists on the premises; or if a low pressure cut-off device required by these Rules and Regulations is not installed and maintained in working order.

12.2 Water service to such premises shall not be restored until the consumer has corrected or eliminated such conditions or defects in conformance with these Rules and Regulations and to the satisfaction of the Public Water Supplier. Costs associated with water shut-off and subsequent turn-on shall be paid for by the consumer.

12.3 The Pennsylvania Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) empowered the Pennsylvania Departmental of Environmental Protection (DEP) to impose various penalties upon individuals tampering with public water supply systems. These penalties are as follows:

a. Any person who endangers the health of persons by knowingly introducing any contaminant into a public water system or tampering with a public water system shall be fined not more than $50,000, or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both.

b. Any person who attempts to endanger or makes a threat to endanger the health of persons by knowingly introducing any contaminant into a public water system or tampering with a public water system shall be fined not more than $20,000, or imprisoned for not more than three years, or both.

c. The Department may bring a civil action in the appropriate Court of Common Pleas against any person who endangers, attempts to endanger, or makes a threat to endanger the health of persons or otherwise renders the water unfit for human consumption by the introduction of any contaminant into a public water system or tampering with a public water system. The Court may impose on such person a civil penalty of not: more that $50,000, for each day that such endangerment or inability to consume the water exists.

12.4 The Public Water Supplier shall reserve the right to initiate any/all formal proceedings in accordance with the SDWA:

Did You Know?

How is water used in your home? On average, 17% goes towards showering, 27% is used by the toilet, your faucet drains 15%, your clothes washer another 22%, miscellaneous needs take up 5%, and those...

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